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cannabis sativa l seeds

Cannabis sativa l seeds

Specific European and national legislation as well as international conventions apply to establish which type of extracts and derivates of the Cannabis sativa L. plant may be used in products, including food and cosmetics. Keep reading to find out more about hemp, an incresingly popular ingredient in cosmetics, and the differences in the extracts and derivates of the Cannabis sativa L. plant.

How does regulation work outside the EU?
In the USA, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not prohibit or restrict the use of cannabis or cannabis-derived ingredients in cosmetics, and considers the possibility that a product containing these substances can have both a cosmetic and a drug use (for instance, creams to treat dermatitis or acne). Unlike in the USA, however, no therapeutic or medical claim should be asserted for cosmetics in Europe. This applies as well to products containing permitted cosmetic raw materials extracted from Cannabis sativa.

Can cannabidiol (CBD) be used in cosmetics?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a type of cannabinoid that can be synthetically produced or isolated from Cannabis plants and used as a single ingredient. In cosmetics, CBD can function as an antioxidant and facilitate anti-aging properties.

Cannabis sativa l seeds

Overall, the literature data showed that hempseed oil is characterized by high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content and low saturated fatty acids (SFAs) amounts. More precisely, based on genotype and environmental factors, hempseed oil contained up to 90% unsaturated fatty acids [34], of which from 70% to over 80% is composed by PUFAs. The major monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) was Oleic Acid (18:1, n-9, OA) which has been shown to reach the highest value (18.78%) in the Canadian cv Joey [44], whereas the lowest OA content (8.42%) was found in the Finola cv grown in Italy [39]. Generally, the amount of OA in hempseed oil is shown to be higher than those found in chia seed (7%) [51] and comparable to those present in linseed (15%) [52]. Among PUFAs, Linoleic Acid (18:2, n-6, LA) was the most representative FA in hempseed oil of all analysed genotypes, accounting for more than half of the total FA. The second prominent PUFAs was α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3, ALA). Hence, hempseed oil represents an especially rich source of these two fatty acids which are known as Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs), since they cannot be synthesized by mammals and, therefore, must be acquired by diet because they are necessary to maintain healthy human life. Indeed, LA and ALA are the precursors of the n-6 and n-3 PUFAs biologically active in animals, including humans, namely the long-chain PUFAs Arachidonic Acid (20:4, n-6, AA) which derived by the conversion of LA; and Docosahexaenoic Acid (22:6, n-3, DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (20:5, n-3, EPA) obtained from the ALA precursor. These biologically active forms of EFAs are necessary for many physiological processes, including maintenance of cell membrane structure, and cardiovascular health, the regulation of metabolic and inflammatory processes through the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes, skin integrity, as well as proper regulation of the brain’s development and function. In this context, it is important to note that the conversion of both LA and ALA into their biologically active PUFAs derivatives occurs at a low conversion rate. Several studies [3,34,39,47] highlighted that the Finola cv was the hemp variety with the highest ALA amount compared to other cvs. The highest ALA content in the Finola cv was found by Callaway (22%) [47] and the lowest was found by Irakli and colleagues (15.3%) [3].

Table 2

The manifold applications of hemp plant: virtually, each part of this plant can be used in a specific industrial field. The seeds can be used in the food, feed, and cosmetical field as whole or dehulled, or it may be subjected to a cold press process to obtain an oil used in the food and cosmetic industries. From the stem, it is possible to obtain both shives and fibre, useful for animal, building, paper and textile applications. The hemp root system is highly developed in comparison to other herbaceous plants, and this feature is suitable for the phytoremediation of soil from heavy metals. Hemp flowers can be used for ornamental purposes or to obtain products of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest, such as essential oils composed by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) pure extracts.

1. Introduction

Regarding the enrichment of bread with hempseed or derivatives, some works have evaluated the impact on the nutritional, structural, and textural characteristics of both dough and bread, consequentially to the addition of hempseeds or their derivatives. About this, from a technological/rheological point of view, the main issue of the usage of non-conventional ingredient in the bakery industry, in order to fortify the bakery products is their adverse effect on the dough rheological and baking properties, mainly as a result of the dilution of wheat gluten proteins. Consequently, this can negatively affect the end product quality (volume, texture, crumb and crust properties, and colour) that may ultimately affect lowering the consumers’ acceptability. Studies about the enrichment of the bread dough with hempseed flour agree that the addition of hempseed flour in the wheat flour significantly reduced the dough’s water absorption, stability, strength, and starch gelatinization, in a proportional manner to the level of hemp flour added as a consequence of the dilution of gluten amount in the dough [166,169,170]. Pojić and colleagues [166], and Švec and others [169] found that the decrease in the water absorption of the bread dough had a negative impact also on the time required for dough development, but nevertheless, the dough’s stability and strength were not significantly affected by the addition of up to 10% of hempseed flour. Pojic and others [166] also noted that the increase in the hempseed flour content up to 20%, negatively affected both the dough’s stability and strength.

The necessity in traits of earliness and tolerance to low temperatures in spring time for hemp is obvious. Maturing of main cultivars is relatively late in Central Russia. It leads to big losses of fiber and seeds yield because of wet and cold weather in September-October. In Central Russia, fast-growing cultivars could mature for fiber and be harvested in the end of July – beginning of August, and for seeds – in the beginning of September. The early-sowing time is a decisive factor of high yield of hemp. In this case, the crop is afflicted by various pests to a lesser degree.

The history of hemp cultivation in Russia gives the evidence that low positive temperature is not a limiting factor for this crop cultivation. The main cultivation areas were in Central Russia. But in the North of the country hemp has been cultivated near the Northern Border of Agriculture (66° N, approx.): from Arkhangelsk the northern limit of hemp-cultivation was extended to Mezen, then reached Pechora River (Ust-Tsilma), to Tobolsk Province, Surgut (61° 17’N). Hemp has been cultivated on the Kolyma River (Verhnekolymsk- 65° N, 153° E) [5]. Thus, its possible to discover cold-resistant, early-maturing landraces, well-adapted to severe cold climate with low temperatures in spring-time and short summer within the Cannabis sativa species, which are extremely desirable for breeding.

The stage of seeds maturation in female plant is the decisive factor for time of harvesting and minimizing of losses at harvesting. We analyzed ripening of each female plant over the population per accession. The most early accessions were from eastern Kazakhstan, Local (Russia, Siberia), Local (Russia, Kirov), which didn’t produce high yield of seeds per plant. Such accessions as Local (Russia, Kirov) and Local (Russia, Chuvashia) combine traits of the highest seed yield per plant and earliness.