The next step in the process is the size reduction of the seed. This is effected by cracking rolls. Most cracking rolls comprise an integral feeder with a permanent magnet and two pairs of corrugated rolls arranged one on top of the other so that the first set of rolls feeds the second set. In the case of soybeans, the seed is cracked to 1/4 to 1/3 of bean size. The granulation of the crushed seeds is checked on a 2.25 mm screen. The retained portion should be about 75% of the original sample. The granulation after cracking affects flake size, which in turn impacts product volume inside the extractor.
2. Dehulling of Soybeans
2.5. Hot Dehulling (see also US Process Patent 7,021,572)
3. Preparation/Dehulling of Sunflower Seed
The preparation of high-oil seed for expelling or direct extraction is in some steps similar to preparation system for soybeans described in Section 2 above. The oil content in the “soft seeds” is higher than in soybeans (it is around 40% +). Therefore, there is an additional process step for pressing needed in the dehulling system. The sequence of the process steps for sunflower seeds dehulling are described in the next section.
The superficial structure of the embryo was observed using a digital optical microscope (VHX-1000; Keyence Co.). Seed size was expressed as the long axis, transverse diameter, and longitudinal diameter, which were measured using an electric vernier caliper at an accuracy of 0.01 mm. Seed was measured according to its long axis, transverse diameter, and longitudinal diameter, and embryo volumes were measured using a digital optical microscope (VHX-1000; Keyence Co.) as reported by Bian et al. 48 . Twenty-five seeds were randomly selected by quartering, and measurements were repeated three times.
Before this experiment, the seed coat of S30, S90, S180, S270, and S360 seeds were removed using a scalpel. Thirty-six kernels were sterilized with 70% ethanol for 1 min, 0.1% mercuric chloride for 6–7 min, followed by rinsing in sterile water 4 times. Endopleura and endosperm were excised with a sterile scalpel and needle under aseptic conditions, and embryos with 1/2 endosperm were inoculated on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium. Somatic embryos were transferred using a sterile tweezer onto MS hormone-free medium with 3% sucrose and 0.8% agar at pH 5.8. These embryos were maintained on the same medium. All cultures were incubated in a chamber at 25 ± 1 °C with 8 h dark and 16 h light regime of 2000 lx. Each experiment was repeated three times. Germination date was recorded for in vitro embryos of each seed storage.
Study Area and Species
Brady, S. M., Sarkar, S. F., Bonetta, D. & McCourt, P. The ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) gene is modulated by farnesylation and is involved in auxin signaling and lateral root development in Arabidopsis. The Plant Journal 34, 67–75 (2003).
Seed and embryo morphology
The scanning electron microscopy analysis results of the seed coat of T. yunnanensis at different storage times. (a) S90 spermoderm; (b) S180 spermoderm; (c) S270 spermoderm; (d) S360 spermoderm; (e) S90 acid-treated spermoderm; (f) S180 acid-treated spermoderm (g) S270 acid-treated spermoderm (h) S360 acid-treated spermoderm. 1, surface coat; 2, cross-section.
Guides and Publications
Taking it to the Field: Seeding and Transplanting Vegetables
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