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koloa sunrise seeds

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Koala specifications

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Koala reviews

Kelly Salinas from Heard Island and Mcdonald Islands

Koloa sunrise seeds

From Washington’s Gold Leaf Gardens, this sativa-dominant hybrid is packed with sweet citrus and papaya aromas. With bright green buds and sweet tropical flavors, this potent strain packs a punch. Its uplifting high might take a few minutes to come on, but Koloa Sunrise will transport you to a warm beach just before golden hour.

From Washington’s Gold Leaf Gardens, this sativa-dominant hybrid is packed with sweet citrus and papaya aromas. With bright green buds and sweet tropical flavors, this potent strain packs a punch. Its uplifting high might take a few minutes to come on, but Koloa Sunrise will transport you to a warm beach just before golden hour.

Koloa sunrise seeds

It has been well established that plants can not only detect the presence/absence of a nearby plant community, but also decipher the identity of such plants (Elhakeen et al., 2018). The identity of the surrounding plants has experimentally elicited fascinating plant behavioral responses, ranging from negative interactions such as allelopathy, to positive interactions, such as the release of volatile compounds as a warning to other plants (Bais et al., 2006; Dicke & Baldwin, 2010). Furthermore, there is mounting evidence that plants may also undertake kin selection where certain traits that are expressed only in the presence of strangers may indicate competition or selfishness, while traits expressed in the presence of kin may indicate cooperation or altruism (Murphy & Dudley, 2009; File et al., 2012; Dudley, et al., 2013). Thus, having similar phenotypes of C. sativa grown within close proximity of one another may provide a growing environment that may not only act to alleviate plant stresses, but also create an alert network for the invasion of pathogens, in turn boosting overall crop resiliences.

The decision that all farms are faced with in choosing which containers (if any) to use for their crop(s) has both biological and financial implications. Not surprisingly, these implications are not mutually exclusive, as the type of containers used (e.g., hydroponics, potted soil, raised beds, ground-planted, etc.) inherently will express differences in ecosystem biodiversity. Furthermore, this decision as to which type of growing method used (e.g., isolated containers vs. communal beds) will inevitably impact how the crop plant perceives its neighboring community (Silvertown & Gordon, 1989; Karban, 2008; Novoplansky, 2009). The signals that plants pick up from neighboring (if any) plant species can be transferred via a range of stimuli, such as mechanical (i.e., touch) (Braam, 2005), or biochemical, such as organic compounds produced from the roots of surrounding plants (Biedrzycki et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2012).

All statistics were carried out in R 3.4.1 (R Core Team 2017). Differences in the three C. sativa phenotypes were tested using an ANOVA followed by a Tukey’s honest significant test (HSD) to examine pairwise differences across strains. As statistical differences were detected within different strains (see Results), all phenotype data could not be combined relative to treatment (i.e., data for all beds could not be tested against the data for all pots). All data passed Levene’s test for equal variance prior to the ANOVA analyses.

13% more aboveground biomass (AGB) (mean: 4.01 lbs. per trellis) at the time of harvest (T H ) than those grown solitarily in cloth pots (n = 8; mean: 3.48 lbs. per trellis). ANOVAs and post-hoc Tukey’s HSD tests revealed that strains grew significantly more than others even within treatments, and therefore a treatment-wide analysis comparing all plants grown in beds could not be compared to all plants grown in pots. For example, within the bed treatment, Grateful Breath grew significantly larger than both Koloa Sunrise and Peppermint Cookies (46% & 45% respectively; Tukey’s HSD, P<0.0001, F 57.17 ; d.f. = 9). This same pattern was also observed within the pots treatment (Tukey’s HSD, P<0.001, F 57.93 ; d.f. = 5).

Fig. 3: Boxplot of three strains grown in groups of six plants across two different container types. Open black diamonds represent group means. Asterisks in the Grateful Breath strain indicate that this particular phenotype grew significantly more in the homogenous beds than in the cloth pots. Black dot in Koloa Sunrise indicates a statistical outlier. Note changes in Y-axis scaling across the three strains.

Experimental design

Fig. 1: Cultivation of C. sativa utilizing homogenous beds and individual pots. White PVC trellises woven with gardening mesh are used to aid in plant growth and support. Both the bed and pot treatments contained six plants per trellis.

On average, groups of six plants grown in homogenous beds (n=12) contained

The interpretation of these signals can have direct influence on important growth characteristics of the plant, which in turn can alter important chemical pathways via nutrient uptake capabilities, such as root growth behavior (Fang et al., 2013). Thus, the exposure to the ecosystems that are expressed by these varying grow methods can have dramatic impacts on the biology of the plant, thus influencing crop health and harvest outputs. As a result, deciding on how specific crops respond to these different container variants and associated ecosystems is an ongoing and heavily debated topic throughout horticultural societies, including the rapidly expanding cannabis cultivation industry.